Technical Presentations at the January 2011 Meeting

1.1   Development of IMO Performance Standards for Coating Oil Ballast Tanks’, Ole Borring Sørensen, HEMPEL A/S and IPPIC 

The presentation discusses the development of IMO’s latest performance standard for protective coatings, the Performance Standard for Cargo Oil Tanks of Crude Oil Tankers, IMO Resolution MSC.288(87).  The development process is discussed from the point of view of the manufacturers of marine coatings as represented by the PSPC Work Group of the International Paint & Printing Ink Council, IPPIC, www.IPPIC.org

The presentation provides an overview of already adopted performance standards for protective coatings, outlines the content of these standards and explains the type approval of coatings systems. 

Then follows a description of the development of a test protocol for tanks coatings based upon a description of the corrosive environment in the cargo tanks of crude oil tankers. The description includes a validation of the test protocol based upon service experience from tankers in service as well as a multivariate statistical analysis of the test variables. 

Finally the test protocol for cargo oil tanks is compared with the test protocol for ballast tanks according to IMO Resolution MSC.215(82). 

The IPPIC Performance Standards for Protective Coatings (PSPC) Work Group comprises a majority of marine paint manufacturers in Europe and Japan including Chugoku, Hempel, International Paint, Jotun, NKM, Nippon and Sigma Coatings (PPG). 

[Ole Borring Soerensen, IPPIC PSPC Work Group – Chairman, HEMPEL A/S, Lundtoftevej 150, DK-2800  Kgs. Lyngby, Phone (direct): +45 4527 3641, Fax: +45 4593 3863, Email: obs@hempel.com]

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1.2  Performance of CuNi-alloys in Chlorinated Seawater - Effect of Surface Conditioning in Sulfide Containing Seawater’, Christos Kapsalis, KME Germany AG & Co. KG 

Six weeks exposure tests were run with CuNi 70 30 (C71500) and CuNi 90 10 (70600) tubes in a flow loop with artificial ASTM seawater (pH 8.2; flow rate 0.05 m/s) at room temperature and 40°C in the absence and presence of 1 ppm hydrogen sulfide.  The effect of hypochlorite addition (0.5; 1.0; 3.0 ppm; sensor controlled) was investigated on tube surfaces i) in the as-received surface condition, ii) after conditioning with additive-free artificial seawater and iii) after conditioning with artificial seawater containing 1 ppm bisulfide.  The conditioning was performed for 6 weeks at room temperature under access of air. 

On a non-conditioned as-received tube surface the presence of hypochlorite increases the mass loss rate.  The effect increases with the hypochlorite concentration and decreases with increasing temperature (40°C).  Pre-conditioning of the inner tube surface with additive-free artificial seawater is beneficial to improve performance in the presence of hypochlorite. 

The presence of bisulfide in the flowing seawater significantly decreases the corrosion resistance of both types of CuNi alloys in the as-received surface condition, as well after 6 weeks conditioning with additive-free and bisulfide containing seawater.  However, in case of CuNi 70 30 addition of hypochlorite to the flowing ASTM seawater decreases the stimulating bisulfide effect. This is not seen at CuNi 90 10, regardless of the starting condition of the surface. 

[G. Schmitt1, R. Feser2, C. Kapsalis3, B. Sagebiel3,   1 IFINKOR-Institute for Maintenance and Corrosion Protection Technology, Kalkofen 4, D-58638 Iserlohn, Germany, guenter.schmitt@ifinkor.de, 2 Laboratory for Corrosion Protection, South-Westfalia University of Applied Sciences, Frauenstuhlweg 31, D-58644 Iserlohn, Germany, feser.r@fh-swf.de, 3 KME Germany AG &Co KG, Klosterstr. 29, D-49074 Osnabrück, Germany, christos.kapsalis@kme.com; bernd.sagebiel@kme.com]

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3.1    ‘Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production with Water Injection Systems with Particular Reference to Underdeposit and Pitting Corrosion and Options Available’, Paulette Sidky, CMC Ltd - Corrosion and Materials Consultants 

Water injection is often required for enhancing oil recovery.  Locations of enhanced scaling were shown and are due to mixing of other types of water with sea water due to the chemical reaction of Group II cations with seawater.  Chemical additives are used to mitigate corrosion by removing oxygen from the system and biocides are added  for the removal of bacteria. Scaling inhibitors are also required.  A discussion around the philosophy of monitoring the system was introduced and the pros and cons of using nitrate additions for the control of sulphur reducing bacteria.  The beneficial role of cleaning and pigging was highlighted.  Possible operational malfunctions in an injection system were discussed and the balancing act required when selecting materials in situations when full control of the system is not possible.  A discussion of materials with examples of failures included carbon steel, Cu-Ni alloys, Monel and corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs). Recommendations for new systems were put forward.

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3.2   Updating of the old Marine Technology Directorate’s Cathodic Protection Guidelines’, Cameron Stewart, The Energy Institute & Robin Jacob, Corrosion Consultancy 

The background to the project was introduced, starting with the history of the old MTD document through to its new owners (the Energy Institute) how it fits with the drivers of the EI Membership and its guiding STAC committee.  The Programme for updating the CP guidelines was described in detail with a listing of the various tasks along with the names of those who would be undertaking these tasks from the specialists within the Cathodic Protection community.  The aim being to bring the Guidance up-to-date and to expand its application to include new Chapters on Renewables and Field Life Extension.  An invite was made to the MCF Membership for interested specialists to get in touch should they wish to get involved and to send any photos of CP Experience for inclusion in the new Guidance ('good' and 'bad') to the speaker, Dr Cameron Stewart (cstewart@energyinst.org).

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